Mapping the Way to Racial Equity

By: Clayton Fosterweber


Clayton explores fields of environmental science with a focus on resource distribution and environmental justice.

When I started my career as a college student, my first Environmental Science professor was a professional cartographer. Not sure if you know what that is but I certainly had to google it to find out it refers to the study of maps. I remember thinking to myself, “How can a man that makes maps for a living teach students about the complex, interdisciplinary field of Environmental Science?” I failed to see the connection between the creation of maps and issues that plague the field of Environmental Science. My naive view of map making was an image of an elderly gentleman placing mountain ranges onto a dusty old scroll. This ridiculous mental picture of map making has since been refreshed. I found a valuable connection with the fields of mapping and Environmental Science through another course at Drexel University: GIS and Environmental Modeling. GIS is an acronym that stands for Geographic Information Systems and ArcGIS is an online mapping software which allows its user to analyze data spatially. Yes, those words were boring to read, but the impacts GIS can have are infinite. Many people in the Environmental Science field utilize GIS to synthesize and visual spatial data, or more simply put, make a map.

Under my co-op with professor Dr. Dane Ward, I have been using ArcGIS to analyze spatial data in the lens of environmental justice. Environmental justice is defined as the equitable and just treatment of all peoples with respect to race, gender, color, nationality, and wealth when dealing with the distribution of beneficial environmental resources and the burdens of environmental pollutants. Visualizing spatial                                                                                              data has impactful connections to geographic areas and societal factors. More specifically, my co-op has been focused on analyzing people’s access to green spaces, in particular, with children in the Philadelphia school system.

It certainly doesn’t surprise me when I read articles about children with access to green space doing better in school, being more likely to pursue STEM careers in higher education, and developing stronger coping mechanisms that lead to improved mental health. The presence of curated green space often ties in with a variety of socioeconomic factors such as wealth. Green space isn’t often thought about when considering wealth and well being, but the healing presence of nature cannot be overlooked. When I was in third grade, we had a teacher named Judah who used to take his class into the forest behind our school. It was one of the most memorable moments from my education, mostly because another kid stepped on an underground bee hive which resulted in the stinging of 20 third grades as we scattered in fear. Other than traumatic bee-induced tragedies, green spaces can be a healing amenity to aid against health and income disparities. 

 My team and I have been working in ArcGIS to analyze access to green space by mapping out public, private, and charter schools. We aim to identify school locations with low access to green space in Philadelphia for the equitable distributions of resources. Areas lacking curated green spaces often have high levels of poverty and are composed of minority groups such as Black and Brown people. Urban and impoverished areas have far less access to green spaces as compared to wealthier and whiter suburban areas. This systematic injustice in American society needs to be brought to light by individuals, corporations, institutions, and our government. This is being done by the company that creates the tools for analysis. 

The ESRI corporation, which creates software like ArcGIS, recently dedicated a large section of their company’s web page to how individuals and corporations can use their software to map and solve issues of racial inequality. The Webpage highlights how location intelligence can aid in the fight for racial equity for government, non-profit, and business purposes. ESRI sells their software to individuals and institutions as a for profit company. There exists other options when wanting to create impactful maps in the field of Environmental Science. QGIS is an alternative software that provides a free and open source for geographic information systems and is a mapping tool that is available to all. This accessibility provides all of those who are interested with the software needed to succeed.

ESRI goes into further detail on the methods in which GIS software can engage communities and partners, map and analyze inequalities, operationalize best practices, and manage performance. This webpage also provides resources such as a racial equity hub and access to relevant spatial data on race, wealth, and pollution. Having large companies such as ESRI dedicating resources and bringing attention to racial issues can have a great impact on their user base. This helps to spread awareness for justice, creating a catalyst for change. A section of the ESRI page specifically highlights scientific studies that utilized GIS software to tackle issues of racial inequity.

One highlighted study, “Helping Los Angeles Tackle the Need for Park Equity” written by Matt Ball, related urban ecology and the inequity of the public’s access to outdoor spaces. The article explores how the Public Land Trust non-profit utilized GIS software to create parks for Southern California that are accessible to areas of low income and high poverty. By analyzing and identifying communities with low access to green spaces, the Public Land Trust can help conserve and transform specific areas to benefit those without access to outdoor resources.

The town of focus in the article is home of the Watts riots that occurred 50 years ago, but evidence of the protests are still present today. The Watts riots took place just outside of Los Angeles in Watts, California. These protests centered around police brutality after the unjust treatment of Marquette Frye and subsequent injustices against Black and Brown community members (Queally, 2015).  Does this sound familiar? It probably should. Almost sounds like history shaking its head. Watts, being mainly composed of minority populations, was denied governmental services and funding that lead to fewer curated green space projects. With recent momentum gaining for the Black Lives Matter movement, our civilization needs to look to the past and correct the subsequent outcomes. Protests and riots much like that of the Watts Revolution have occurred in large cities around the United States and Countries around the world. It is now up to the United States to make sure the adversities faced by the town of Watts do not reoccur. 

 This paper looked at how towns like Watts can start to build equity by means of green space installment. There are striking similarities of the Watts revolution that mirror the current state of the United States of American and the plague of police brutality. Every history teacher has preached learning about our past, it would be an ironic tragedy to let the same issues that occurred in Watts to reoccur in our communities today. To help combat this, local governments need to instate similar tactics of utilizing spatial software to identify areas of need and create specialized green spaces to fit the needs of communities without furthering the far reaching spread of gentrification. What can be deemed as ‘good’ and ‘helpful’ greenspace to a community ranges based on several factors. Curated greenspace is defined as being installed with a purpose, however, the purpose of these spaces can vary greatly based on the community’s needs. Areas with high volume of children could use a curated play space for recreation or areas of food desert could use a community garden. It is important when creating these spaces to understand what benefits can be offered to most greatly benefit the needs of the community using the space. Letting members of the neighborhoods that are not receiving the green space choose amenities provides the opportunity for communities to raise themselves with the tools that green spaces can offer. 

Spatial information has long been a tool of the oppressor to instate racist and classist structures in society such as redlining, which is the systematic denial of governmental services based on geographic location, and other discriminatory practices. When was the last time you have actually seen a map in person? Who do you think created it? When was the last time you used a map? (No, the Uber map does not count) Map making and property lines have historically been used by the majority group to suppress the minority. Reclaiming map making as a tool for the oppressed will combat the systematic discrimination put into place by colonization. Map making no longer looks like an old man and his collection of dusty scrolls, it will look like researchers restoring justice and lifting communities towards a brighter future. ESRI amplifying the ways that their software can help identify and alleviate racial inequities demonstrates how location intelligence can be used as a tool for justice. I used to not see the connection between maps and social, environmental injustices. I now see that the path towards equity and justice has to be mapped out. 

Resources

Queally, J. (2015, August 08). Watts Riots: Traffic stop was the spark that ignited days of destruction in L.A. Retrieved July 01, 2020, from https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-watts-riots-explainer-20150715-htmlstory.html

Ball, M., 2020. GIS Helps Los Angeles Tackle The Need For Park Equity. [online] Esri. Available at: <https://www.esri.com/about/newsroom/blog/helping-la-tackle-park-equity/> [Accessed 16 July 2020].

How the COVID-19 pandemic exemplifies racism & inequalities

By now, we all know what coronavirus is: an infectious virus that attacks the respiratory system. This post is the first in a series about COVID-19 (a.k.a coronavirus), from its origins to the various ways it has affected our collective lives. In this series, members of the Ward lab will tackle topics such as globalization, equity and justice, and racism and their interactions with coronavirus.

By: Akilah Chatman 

Akilah advocates for environmental justice with a focus on accessibility and equity.

The suffering we experience due to COVID-19 is not uniform. It has not been the great equalizer, rather it has exacerbated the very large inequalities that already today exist in society; racism and the wealth gap to name a few. We are all suffering from COVID-19 with extremely different outcomes.

Racism and inequality relative to COVID-19 plays out in several ways. . .  

  1. Increased xenophobia towards to Asian community
  2. Minority populations dying from COVID-19 at rates higher than their percent of the population
  3. Indigenous tribes being denied funding and aid
  4. Time and space for the BLM resurgence 

Xenophobia against people of Asian descent has increased throughout the world, but especially in America as the Trump Administration has termed the pandemic as the Chinese disease. Referring to COVID-19 as the Chinese disease places the blame not only on the Chinese government, but also the Chinese people. We have seen many ignorant people attempt to get people they identify as Chinese (aka all Asian people) to personally pay for their ‘crimes against humanity’ through harassment and sometimes violence. Yet we have seen examples of groups of Asian people getting together to sew masks or serve food; they want to help their communities battle this virus. Hopefully this helps them to be seen well in the public eye and makes spaces safer for them, but I must point out that they’re doing their part to help fix a problem they shouldn’t be held accountable for (Gibson, 2020). The work they have done has positively affected so many lives, so it is heartbreaking to acknowledge that is also a preservation tactic for them. 

Before COVID-19 reached the United States there were many speculations that it didn’t affect people with melanin, and if it did it wasn’t as severe. Once it did reach the United States what we found was that actually more Black people were being infected and dying, and at disproportionate rates for the population. This is where systematic racism has made this unnecessarily more challenging for the Black community. Through a variety of initiatives such gerrymandering, segregation, redlining and more we have made these communities poor by design. Members of these communities make up a large percentage of essential workers; health care providers, food delivery people, mail services people, gas stations attendants, and grocery store clerks to name a few. These workers are viewed as disposable, and a means to an end to jump start the economy. Many of these jobs don’t provide quality insurance or any insurance at all. People in these communities are being forced to leave their homes to be underpaid, undervalued, and put themselves and their loved ones at risk, all in the name of a capitalistic system that values their labour and not their lives.

When we look at the fact that a test for coronavirus is more than three thousand dollars and treatment is more than one hundred thousand dollars we see something really terrifying. At first we think “oh that’s why we have insurance, to cover the unaffordable costs of medical care.” Well, I’m here to highlight that not everyone has access to insurance and not all insurance policies are created equally to cover such high costs. What this means is that a large part of the US population can’t afford to get tested for this, let alone receive treatment for it. This is the reality for poorer communities including the Black, Asian, and Hispanic communities. This means a number of things; 1. The reported numbers for COVID-19 are incorrect and aren’t representative for specific communities and 2. Many of the deaths in poor minority communities are completely preventable. Right now we are watching the government choose to blatantly ignore these populations in need and unfortunately they don’t even have it the hardest. 

Indigenous tribes across the United States to this date have not received any funding, aid, or tests promised to them. Instead have received body bags (Folley, 2020). Our government has let it be known that they won’t help the people whose land we stole, and they don’t care that this will result in massive numbers of them dying. 

They have no remorse about it. This is unacceptable. 

Throughout the world indigenous populations are suffering. These are people who depend on community support, such as large traditional gatherings, harvests, and multigenerational housing, and self isolation leaves them unable to get the help they need from their community. Indigenous peoples experience higher rates of communicable and noncommunicable diseases, inadequate access to healthcare, stigma and discrimination in healthcare, and lack of essential services and preventive measures like sanitation (Nuorgam, 2020). These factors, as well as the socio-economic marginalization they experience, leaves them very vulnerable to COVID-19. Yet worldwide we find that the governments’ surrounding them aren’t giving them the aid that they need.

These communities deserve better and now is the time for us to work together for the collective betterment of everyone. Quarantine has shown that when we have the time, we do take care of ourselves and our communities. With all the time spent at home we have been able to reflect on and call out injustices, and that has been evident in the recent rapid growth of the Black Lives Matters movement. The BLM movement began in 2013 as a response to the murder of Trayvon Martin. In the seven years since we have seen a steady growth in support for the movement and outrage for police brutality as thousands of Black people have died at the hands of police. On May 29th, a couple months into quarantine, George Floyd was murdered by police. With the momentum already building, and a lot more free time we had the catalyst for a renewed Civil Rights movement. After an American history length trend of police brutality against Black bodies, people in every state and at least 18 countries have been protesting everyday for more than a month! And these protests don’t seem to be slowing down. 

So what’s different about George Floyds murder compared to Trayvon Martin, and countless others throughout history? 

We were angry and outraged then, we are angry and outraged now. The difference is we don’t have a job to go back to on Monday, so we can protest for more than just the weekend. We are bound to this capitalistic system designed to make us work to survive on an endless loop; 9:00 am to 5:00 pm Monday through Friday. Except that’s a gross underrepresentation for the lived realities for poor minority folk who often find themselves working two, three and even more jobs to still not be able to pay their bills. When we now have the time and space to look beyond just ends-meet we can reflect on the serious injustices we all face. It almost seems as if the system was designed this way. Without guaranteed things such as universal healthcare, universal base income, and accessible public infrastructure and transportation we are forced to work endlessly in hopes that we can provide these for ourselves and family. Can you now see why people argue against these matters? The lack of them keeps us bound to a system where we don’t even have the time to fight for our own rights. But we are fighting, and we are making changes. The people really do have the power, and we can use that power to create a system that cares for everyone equally and equitably regardless of race, socioeconomic status, religion, sexuality, age, and disability. 

So ask yourself, would we have seen a renewal in BLM and our battle for racial equity if not for the global pandemic of COVID-19?  A scenario where minority and lower social economic populations are increasing their exposure to COVID-19 in protests, in order to combat these disturbing social injustices. 

Gibson, A. (2020, April 12). Vietnamese-owned nail salons donate thousands of masks, gloves, more to hospitals. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/vietnamese-owned-nail-salons-donate-thousands-masks-gloves-more-hospitals-n1180291

Folley, A. (2020, May 06). Native health center says it received body bags after it asked for supplies to fight coronavirus. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/496325-native-health-center-says-it-received-body-bags-when-it-asked-for

Nuorgam, A. (2020). COVID-19 and Indigenous peoples For Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/covid-19.html